IT Terminology Glossary

The IT industry is chock full of its own lingo. Below are definitions for some of the most of the common words and terms in today's technology vocabulary.

DefinitionsQuick descriptionWhat we offer
What is an Access Control List? An access control list is a list of permission rights used to assign roles and responsibilities. Network Insight for Cisco ASA Monitoring
What is Active Directory? Active Directory is an important part of IT infrastructure. It can be used to manage devices, users, domains, and objects within a network. Active Directory Monitoring
What are Active Directory Groups?Active Directory (AD) groups help keep a tab on the access permissions to various resources in your network, such as computers. Active Directory Solutions
What Is Advanced Persistent Threat?Advanced persistent threat (APT) is a planned, stealthy cyberattack that allows attackers to penetrate a company's network and stay inside for a prolonged duration to exfiltrate valuable information. Software for Advanced Persistent Threat Defense
What is agentless monitoring?Agentless monitoring helps you monitor your overall network health without deploying any third-party agent software.Server & Application Monitor
What is APM? Application performance monitoring (APM) is a continuous process of monitoring the availability of mission-critical applications. Application Performance Monitoring Software
What Is Application Infrastructure?Application infrastructure refers to all the software and hardware assets necessary for the smooth functioning of your application.Server & Application Monitor
What Is AWS CloudTrail?What is AWS Cloudtrail?
What Is Bandwidth Consumption? Bandwidth consumption happens when a node connects to and exchanges information over a network. Network Bandwidth Monitor
What Is CIDR? Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) refers to the standard process of efficiently allocating and organizing IP addresses across networks and devices. IP Subnets Management
What Is Cloud Computing? Cloud computing allows companies to rent software, data storage, and other IT resources instead of managing them in-house. Government Cloud Computing Solutions
What Is Computer Hardware? Hardware refers to the external and internal devices and equipment that enable you to perform major functions such as input, output, storage, communication, processing, and more. Hardware Monitoring Software
What is a Configuration Management Database (CMDB)? A CMDB is a crucial part of the ITIL framework. It enables organizations to manage, control, and configure assets. Configuration Management Database Software
What Is Container Technology? A container is a lightweight package that includes code and dependencies together. Container Monitoring
What is Cybersecurity? Cybersecurity refers to the practice of protecting networks, hardware, software, data, and confidential information from cyberthreats such as unauthorized access, theft, damage, or other malicious digital attacks by employing a comprehensive set of technologies and best practices. Government Cybersecurity Solutions
What Is Cyberthreat Intelligence? Cyberthreat intelligence provides critical knowledge about existing and evolving cyber threats and threat actors. Threat Intelligence Tools for Security
What Is Database Cardinality? Database cardinality can be defined as the set of elements arranged in tables and rows. Database Performance Analyzer
What is Database Concurrency?Database concurrency is a unique characteristic enabling two or more users to retrieve information from the database at the same time without affecting data integrity.Database Performance Monitor
What Are Indexes in a Database? An index offers an efficient way to quickly access the records from the database files stored on the disk drive. Database Management Portfolio
What is Database Management System (DBMS)?Database performance management system is designed to help admins more easily troubleshoot and resolve DBMS performance issues by monitoring performance and providing root-cause analysis of your database using multi-dimensional views to answer the who, what, when, where, and why of performance issues.Database Performance Analyzer
What Is Database Monitoring? Database monitoring offers the ability to gather essential database performance metrics to help optimize and tune database processes for high performance. Database Performance Analyzer Tool
What is Database Performance Tuning?It's the process of ensuring smooth and optimal database performance by using varied techniques, tools, and best practices.Database Performance Analyzer
What is a Database Query?In everyday language, a query is simply a request for information. Similarly, the meaning of a query in database management is a request for data. If you need to access, manipulate, delete, or retrieve data from your relational database, you’ll need a database query written using a specific syntax.Database Performance Analyzer
What Is a Database Schema? A database schema refers to the logical and visual configuration of the entire relational database. Database Performance Analyzer
What Is Database Software? Database software helps streamline database management by ensuring seamless data storage, monitoring, backup, recovery, and reporting. Database Management Solutions
What Is a Database? Relational and Non-Relational Database Guide A database is a collection of business-critical data organized to ensure the relevant information is easily accessible and manageable. Database Performance Analyzer
What is DDI? DDI is an abbreviated term that refers to the amalgamation of DNS, DHCP, and IP Address Management into a single service or solution. DNS DHCP IPAM Monitoring
What Is DHCP? DHCP intelligently manages IP address allotment and renewal activities in a network. DHCP Scope Monitor
What Is Distributed Tracing?Distributed tracing is vital to manage the performance of applications that use microservices and containerization. Read more about distributed tracing and its benefits.Featured in this Resource
What Is a Domain Controller? A domain controller is a server computer that authenticates and validates user access on a network. Domain Controller Monitoring Tool
What Is Email Spoofing? Email spoofing is a cyberattack that tricks users by sending malicious emails from forged users or trusted accounts. Business Email Compromise Attack (BEC) Protection
What is End User Network Experience Monitoring? End-user network experience monitoring allows teams to measure the impact of overall network performance from the end user's perspective. End User Network Experience Monitors
What Is an Enterprise Network? Enterprise network refers to the physical, virtual, or logical connectivity of the organization’s users, devices, systems, and applications. Integrated Automation Management Solution for Enterprise Scale
What Is File Integrity Monitoring? File integrity is a security mechanism that analyzes critical system files to check unauthorized modifications and cyberattacks. File Integrity Monitoring Software
What is File-sharing security?File-sharing security is all about utilizing the right set of file security tools, transfer protocols, and procedures while exchanging sensitive business documents inside or outside the company network.Serv-U Managed File Transfer Server
What Is FTP Server? File transfer protocol server (commonly known as FTP Server) is computer software that facilitates the secure exchange of files over a TCP/IP network. FTP Server Software
What Is Help Desk Software? Help desk software helps streamline and simplify processes to save time and improve efficiency for troubleshooting end-user requests. IT Help Desk Software
What is High Availability?High availability indicates a system's capability of being resilient to known or unknown failures.Server & Application Monitor
What is Hyper-V?Hyper-V is a Microsoft virtualization product allowing you to create and run multiple VMs on a physical host.Virtualization Manager
What is Application Pool in IIS? IIS Application Pool is a logical collection of websites or applications served by one or multiple worker processes with the same configuration. Server & Application Monitoring Tool
What Is IIS Server? Internet Information Services, also known as IIS, is a Microsoft web server that runs on Windows operating system and is used to exchange static and dynamic web content with internet users. IIS Server Performance Monitoring
What is Index Fragmentation in SQL Server?SQL Server index fragmentation is an overarching problem arising from an excessive number of alterations in the database.Database Performance Analyzer
What Is an Insider Threat? An insider threat is a user with authorized access to sensitive company assets or data who may misuse their access rights to compromise the organization's security. Insider Threat Detection and Management
What Is IoT? Internet of things (IoT) refers to the network of smart devices embedded with sensors, software, or any other technology to exchange data over the internet. Managing IoT Network
What is IPv6? IPv6 is the revised version of the Internet protocol designed to overcome the IPv4 limitations and address exhaustion problem. IPv6 Support
What Is an IT Asset? IT assets are the integral components of the organization's IT environment used for storage, management, control, display, data transmission, and more. IT Asset Management
What Is an IT Incident? IT incident refers to an unexpected event that disrupts business operational processes or reduces the quality of a service. Incident Management Software
What is IT Risk Management? IT risk management involves procedures, policies, and tools to identify and assess potential threats and vulnerabilities in IT infrastructure. Cybersecurity Risk Management Tool
What is Data Storage Management? IT storage management, also called data storage management, involves tracking and streamlining the central component of big data that collects and retains digital information using computers and other devices. Enterprise Storage Management Software
What Is ITIL? ITIL is a set of best practice guidelines focused on aligning the delivery of IT services with business goals. ITIL Software
What is ITIL Service Catalog? Defined in the IT infrastructure library, the IT service catalog is an organized repository of an organization’s active IT servicesend users can request and use efficiently. It falls under the ambit of the IT service portfolio, which provides more in-depth insights into a company's IT services, including active and retired services and products, as well as products currently in the production pipeline. IT Service Catalog Software
What Is ITSM? IT service management (ITSM) is the set of processes and activities involved in planning, designing, delivering, managing, and maintaining IT services. ITSM - IT Service Management Software Solutions
What Is an IT Service Management (ITSM) Platform? ITSM service portal brings end-user queries from multiple sources into a single interface or shared repository allowing support agents to collaborate and resolve them effectively. ITSM Solutions
What Is a Knowledge Base? Knowledge base refers to the documentation that can include FAQs, how-to guides, video demonstration guides and troubleshooting instructions to help users find solutions to their queries. Knowledge Base Software
What is Linux Server? Linux® server refers to a specific type of server based on the free, open-source, and modular Linux operating system. Linux Performance Monitoring Tool
What Is Log Management? Log management is a continuous process of centrally collecting, parsing, storing, analyzing, and disposing of data to provide actionable insights for supporting troubleshooting, performance enhancement, or security monitoring. Server Log Management
What is the MFT Protocol?Managed file transfer (MFT) protocol includes automation capabilities to help companies securely share various types of data over the internet.Serv-U Managed File Transfer Server
What is MariaDB?MariaDB is a secure enterprise database system using pluggable storage engines to store and manage different types of data.SolarWinds SQL Sentry
What Is MySQL Database? MySQL is a popular open-source enterprise database solution that relies on the relational data model for data storage and management operations. MySQL Solutions
What Is Network Access Control? Network access control (NAC) can be defined as the set of rules, protocols, and processes that govern access to network-connected resources such as network routers, conventional PCs, IoT devices, and more. Access Rights Manager
What is Network Activity? Network activity monitoring helps identify bottlenecks impacting overall network performance, health, and uptime. Network Traffic Monitor
What is Network Administration? Network administration aims to manage, monitor, maintain, secure, and service an organization’s network. Network Solutions
What is a Network Administrator?A network administrator proactively identifies and resolves a computer network's security, reliability, and performance issues.Network Performance Monitor
What is Network Automation? Network automation is the process of automating the management aspect of a network’s physical and virtual devices using software to maximize efficiency. Network Automation Manager
What is Network Availability? Network availability, also referred to as network uptime, denotes the overall duration for which the clients can seamlessly access the resources, such as servers and printers, available on a computer network.. Network Availability Monitoring Tool
What Is Network Backup? Network Backup is the process of replicating business-critical data to ensure data is always available. Network Backup Software
What is Network Bandwidth? Network bandwidth is the maximum possible amount of data transfer between two points of a network in a specific time. Network Bandwidth Analyzer
What Is Network Capacity? Network capacity quantifies the maximum amount of data that can be transmitted over a network from one point to another. Network Performance Monitor
What is Network Configuration Compliance? Network configuration compliance refers to implementing the proper controls, policies, and device settings to safeguard your network from attackers and comply with the latest industry requirements for standards like HIPAA and PCI DSS. Network Compliance Audit Tool
What is Network Configuration? Network configuration refers to the organization, governance, and maintenance of a network with the right set of controls and policies. Network Configuration Manager
What Is Network Congestion? Network congestion refers to the reduced quality of service that occurs due to overloaded network nodes or links. Network Congestion Solution
How to Identify Devices on a Network Network device identification, also known as device discovery, is the process of finding network equipment and gathering detailed information about them, such as device status, response time, and IP address. Network Device Discovery Tool
What are Network Devices? Network devices facilitate data transmission and manage digital connections on a computer network. Network Device Manager
What is Network Discovery? Network discovery is a process of finding devices that also allows systems and nodes to connect and communicate on the same network. This helps network administrators locate devices, create network maps, organize device inventories, enforce accurate device access policies, and gain better control of the infrastructure. Network discovery also helps to find static, dynamic, reserved, and abandoned IP addresses. Network Discovery Tool
What is Network Downtime? Network downtime is a specific period for which the network is inaccessible. This could be due to multiple reasons such as an outage, failure of equipment, and ongoing maintenance or upgrade activities. Network Availability Monitoring Tool
What is Network Infrastructure? Network infrastructure is a set of software and hardware components that help build, run, and maintain an IT network. Network Infrastructure Monitoring
What are Network Performance Metrics? Network metrics are qualitative and quantitative ways to observe and determine network behavior. Network Monitoring Software
What Is Network Monitoring?Network monitoring is a critical IT process to discover, map, and monitor computer networks and network components, including routers, switches, servers, firewalls, and more. Network Performance Monitor
What Is a Network Node? A network node can be defined as the connection point among network devices such as routers, printers, or switches that can receive and send data from one endpoint to the other. Network Performance Monitor
What are Network Protocols? Network protocols are a set of rules outlining how connected devices communicate across a network to exchange information easily and safely. Network Protocol Analyzer
What is Network Topology?Network topology offers a diagrammatic explanation of the logical and physical setup of different components, such as routers and switches, in a network.Network Performance Monitor
What is Network Troubleshooting? How to Fix Network Issues Network troubleshooting is the process of measuring, identifying, and resolving network-related issues. It’s also defined as a logical process network engineers follow to improve the overall network operations. Network Troubleshooting Tools
What Is Network Visualization?Network visualization allows you to pictographically showcase the network architecture, including device arrangement and data flows.Network Performance Monitor
What Is a NoSQL Database? NoSQL databases store and retrieve information in a non-tabular format unlike relational databases. NoSQL Database Monitoring Tool
What is Observability? Observability is the measurement of a system's internal state determined from its external outputs. Observability Platform
What are Computer and Server Operating Systems? An operating system (OS) facilitates the interaction between a user and the computer hardware components while offering an environment to manage and control the execution of software applications. Server Application Monitoring
What Is an Oracle Database? An Oracle database is a fully configurable and scalable enterprise database solution that uses a relational model for information management. Database Performance Analyzer for Oracle
What Are OSI Layers? OSI layers enable standardized, reliable communication between two or more network devices. Automated Network Graphing Tool
What Is Packet Loss? How to Fix It Packet loss occurs when a network packet fails to reach its expected destination, resulting in information loss. Packet Loss Monitoring
Patch Management SoftwareSimplify and automate patch managementPatch Management Software
What is Packet Capture (PCAP)? Packet capture is a networking practice involving the interception of data packets travelling over a network. Network Packet Capture Tool
What Is Ping? Ping is a command-line program designed to allow network admins to track the availability status of different devices in a network. Ping Monitor Software
What Is QoS in Networking? A collection of technologies that help efficiently manage network traffic by setting priorities for critical resource-intensive applications within the network. Enhance User Experience with QoS Reporting
What is Real User Monitoring (RUM)? Real user monitoring (RUM), also known as end-user experience monitoring, provides visibility into real-time problems affecting the experience users have while navigating your website. Real User Monitoring Tool
What is a Relational Database?A relational database allows you to easily find, scan, and sort specific information based on the relationship among the different fields defined within a table.Database Performance Analyzer
What Is Remote Access? Remote access is built to help connect and gain access to internal network resources, such as IT services, data, and applications, from any location. Remote Access Tool
What Is Remote Desktop Protocol? Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) enables users to remotely access and control physical and virtual devices running on Windows. Remote Desktop Protocol Security
Remote Desktop ServicesRemote desktop services (RDS) is a technology that enables users to connect to a remote computer's desktop and programs over a network connection. This allows users to work on a laptop far from the desktop as long as they have internet access and the right log-in credentials. With this technology, an IT department can manage, troubleshoot, update, and maintain various computers remotely and centrally.
What Is Reverse Proxy? A reverse proxy facilitates seamless communication in a client-server architecture with intelligent traffic routing, filtering, and distribution. File Transfer Security
What is Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)? RBAC Guide Role-based access control (RBAC) is a method of protecting sensitive data from improper modification, addition, or deletion. Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) Software
What Is SD-WAN? SD-WAN is a software-based network technology that offers a modern, flexible, and more effective way to administer wide-area networks. Software-Defined Network Solutions
What is Server Infrastructure? Server infrastructure consists of physical and virtual resources, along with hardware, software, network resources, to support the management of servers in an IT environment. IT Infrastructure Solutions
What Is a Service Level Agreement (SLA)? A Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a documented agreement between the client and the service provider regarding the specific and measurable aspects of service offerings, including quality, responsibility, and availability. IP SLA Monitoring and Management
What are SharePoint Permissions? SharePoint permissions are access controls that allow you to restrict user rights to ensure SharePoint assets are safe and protected. Automate SharePoint Permissions Management
What Is SIEM? Security Information and Event Management Guide Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) consolidates Security Information Management (SIM) for real-time aggregation and analysis of log data and Security Event Management (SEM). SIEM Tools
What is SNMP?SNMP is a networking protocol used to monitor network devices.SNMP Monitoring
What is an SNMP Trap? All About SNMP Traps SNMP traps are unrequested notifications an SNMP agent of a managed device sends to an SNMP manager in the network. SNMP Trap Receiver Monitoring
What is SNMP Walk, and How Does It Work? SNMP walk is an SNMP application that uses SNMP GETNEXT requests to collect SNMP data from network and infrastructure SNMP-enabled devices, such as switches and routers. MIB Walk Tool
What Is Software-Defined Networking (SDN)? SDN is a network management approach that helps improve internal communications and overall network performance. Software-Defined Network Solutions
What is a SQL Database? SQL database or relational database is a collection of highly structured tables, wherein each row reflects a data entity, and every column defines a specific information field. SQL Database Monitoring
What Is SQL Performance Tuning?SQL performance tuning, or performance tuning, is checking and resolving issues potentially affecting the efficiency of a SQL database.Database Performance Analyzer
What is SSAS (SQL Server Analysis Services)? SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) is a multidimensional online analytical processing (OLAP) server and an analytics engine used for data mining. It allows IT professionals to break up large volumes of data into more easily analyzed parts. A component of Microsoft SQL Server, it helps enable analysis by organizing data into easily searchable cubes. SSAS Performance Monitoring
What Are SQL Server Integration Services? SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) is a Microsoft SQL server database built to be a fast and flexible data warehousing tool to perform high-performance data integrations. SQL Sentry - Database Performance Monitoring Tool
What is an SSL certificate? SSL certificates are small data files designed to strengthen the overall website security through strong encryption and identity verification methods. SSL Certificate Management and Expiration Monitoring Tool
What is Storage Resource Monitoring?Track the performance and capacity of your storage arrays with Storage Resource Monitoring (SRM) to keep tabs on any storage-related issues slowing your system down.Storage Resource Monitor
Subnetting: What Is a Subnet? How It Works Subnetting is the process of logically dividing an IP network into more subnetworks. IP Subnet Calculator
What is Synthetic Monitoring? Synthetic monitoring, also known as active monitoring, runs automated scripts that simulate the real user actions or behavior to identify and fix the website availability, performance, and functionality issues before end users notice them. Synthetic Monitoring - Transaction & Website Testing Tool
What is Syslog? System Logging Protocol facilitates the transfer of information from network devices to a central server, known as syslog server, in a particular message format. Syslog Monitoring and Management Software
What is Uptime? Uptime is a metric used to measure the availability of a website or business application. Pingdom - Uptime, Website, & Performance Monitoring
What is a virtual machine (VM)? A virtual machine is an emulation of a computer system that shares the resources of its host server. Virtualization Manager
What is Virtualization? VM and Virtualization Technology Guideline Virtualization technology creates simulated environments based on physical systems to enable optimal and flexible resource utilization. Virtualization Manager
What Is VLAN? A virtual local area network (VLAN) is a virtualized connection that connects multiple devices and network nodes from different LANs into one logical network. VLAN Configuration
What is a Vulnerability Assessment? Vulnerability investigation or assessment is a systematic approach to identify the security loopholes or weak points in your IT infrastructure and taking active measures to resolve them quickly. Vulnerability Detection
What Is a Web Server? A web server is a computer system capable of delivering web content to end users over the internet via a web browser. Web Server Performance Monitoring Tool
What is Website Monitoring? Website monitoring is a comprehensive approach to monitor a website or web service by tracking critical performance indicators to ensure consistent availability and seamless user experience. Website Monitoring Software
What Are SSIS Components?Learn more about SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) components and find an extensive components list included in SolarWinds Task Factory.Task Factory
What Is AWS CloudWatch? Definition and Top TipsUnderstand AWS CloudWatch and its key benefitsWhat is AWS Cloudwatch?
What Is collectd?Read about collectd and its plug-in ecosystemWhat is collectd
What is ContainerizationLearn how Containerization works and what are its benefitsWhat is Containerization?
What is CPU usage?CPU utilization indicates the amount of load handled by individual processor cores to run various programs on a computer.Server & Application Monitor
What Is a Database Management System (DBMS)?Read how a DBMS helps you manage business-critical databases in an organized and secure way.SolarWinds Observability
What is HTTP?HTTP is a standard protocol enlisting the recommended guidelines and procedures for exchanging information over the internet.Pingdom
What is MIB?MIB is an organized, up-to-date repository of managed objects for identifying and monitoring SNMP network devices.Network Performance Monitor
What Is Root Cause Analysis (RCA)?Read about root cause analysis, its methods and benefits.SolarWinds Observability
What is SQL Server Agent?This Windows service executes scheduled jobs in SQL Server.SQL Sentry
What is T-SQL?What you need to know about T-SQL and its functions.SolarWinds SQL Sentry
What is Windows Event Log? The Windows event log records specific events related to the system, security, and applications on a Microsoft system. Efficient Log Management with Kiwi Syslog Server
What Is Windows Server?Windows Server is a group of operating systems to support enterprises and small and medium-sized businesses with data storage, communications, and applications.Server & Application Monitor
What is WSUS? Windows Server Update Services Guide WSUS is also known as Windows Server Update Services, and its first version is called Server Update Services (SUS). It helps distribute updates, fixes, and other types of releases available from Microsoft Update. Microsoft WSUS Patch Management Software
What is Zero Trust Security? Zero Trust requires organizations not to trust anyone and instead authenticate and authorize every access request to their applications and data. Building a Zero-Trust Model With SolarWinds Security Tools